Block 2: Indirect conversions

Definition 3a:

 

Every {singular noun 1} has a/an {singular noun 2} and a/an {singular noun 3}

  • from which can be concluded

A/An {singular noun 2} and a/an {singular noun 3} are part of every {singular noun 1}

 

Example 3a:

Variables: singular noun 1 = “family”, singular noun 2 = “parent”, singular noun 3 = “child

Given:

  • Every family has a parent and a child.”

Generated conclusion:

  • A parent and a child are part of every family.”

 

Definition 3b:

Every {singular noun 1} has a/an {singular noun 2} and a/an {singular noun 3}

  • and

{proper noun} is a/an {singular noun 2 or 3}

  • from which can be concluded

{proper noun} is part of a/an {singular noun 1}

Definition 3c:

 

Every {singular noun 1} has a/an {singular noun 2} and a/an {singular noun 3}

  • and

{proper noun} is a/an {singular noun 2}

  • from which can be assumed

{proper noun} has probably a/an {singular noun 3}

 

{proper noun} is a/an {singular noun 3}

  • from which can be assumed

{proper noun} has probably a/an {singular noun 2}

 

Examples 3b and 3c:

Variables: proper noun = “Michael”, singular noun 2 = “parent”, singular noun 3 = “child

Given:

  • Michael is a parent.”

Generated conclusion:

  • Michael is part of a family.”                        (generated by definition 3b)

Generated assumption:

  • Michael has probably a child.”                  (generated by definition 3c)

Variables: proper noun = “Adam”, singular noun 2 = “parent”, singular noun 3 = “child

Given:

  • Adam is a child.”

Generated conclusion:

  • Adam is part of a family.”                            (generated by definition 3b)

Generated assumption:

  • Adam has probably a parent.”                   (generated by definition 3c)

 

Definition 3d:

Every {singular noun 1} has a/an {singular noun 2} and a/an {singular noun 3}

  • and

{proper noun} has a/an {singular noun 2 or 3}

  • from which can be assumed

{proper noun} is probably part of a/an {singular noun 1}

Definition 3e:

Every {singular noun 1} has a/an {singular noun 2} and a/an {singular noun 3}

  • and

{proper noun} has a/an {singular noun 2}

  • from which can be assumed

{proper noun} is probably a/an {singular noun 3}

{proper noun} has a/an {singular noun 3}

  • from which can be assumed

{proper noun} is probably a/an {singular noun 2}

 

Examples 3d and 3e:

Variables: proper noun = “Peter”, singular noun 2 = “parent”, singular noun 3 = “child

Given:

  • Peter has a parent.”

Generated assumptions:

  • Peter is probably a child.”                         (generated by definition 3e)

  • Peter is probably part of a family.”           (generated by definition 3d)

Variables: proper noun = “Ronald”, singular noun 2 = “parent”, singular noun 3 = “child”

Given:

  • Ronald has a child.”

Generated assumptions:

  • Ronald is probably a parent.”                   (generated by definition 3e)

  • Ronald is probably part of a family.”        (generated by definition 3d)